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The Locality and its Gods

The Locality and its Gods

Subterranean chamber - earth
Queen's chamber - water
King's chamber - air
Sun's chamber - fire
Starry sky's chamber - aether

For the King or for the Priests?

Grand Gallery - fire on earth
To Gallery or water's chamber?
Interesting Ante-chamber
Earlier pyramids
Necessary informations 
Roughly 30 kilometres northeast of the great pyramids of Giza lay in ancient times the city of Annu (in The Bible it is called ON). Later, in the Ptolemaic period it was called Heliopolis - city of the Sun.

This city had a famous temple and a well-known priesthood, which in 4th dynasty (when the Cheops pyramid was built) and long after were superior to all the many other gods and priesthoods of ancient Egypt. The worship cult centered around the Sun God was naturally supported by a strong King, he himself regarded as an upcoming sun god.

In the 5th and 6th dynasties the Kings' pyramids were built smaller than in the 4th dynasty. Instead, they built both a pyramid for the deseased king to be buried in and a similar sized temple for worshipping the Sun.

In 4th dynasty the pyramids served both purposes.
It can be deducted from the inner layout of Cheops' pyramid.
Normally 5th and 6th dynasties are told to be the strong period of the Sun cult. I wonder if not the Sun worship temples of those dynasties reflect a conflict between the two purposes of the pyramids, solved by splitting the efforts in two. "You will have Your temple, then I can have my tomb for myself!"

To the ancient Egyptians the stories of how the gods of Annu were born told a history of order in the universe. I have tried to express this order in the drawing below, the way I see this order built into the Cheops pyramid.
This is the key to understanding the internal architecture.
Heliopolitan creation myth
The five first born gods worshipped in Annu were elementary gods. Each of these five gods plays a role in the Heliopolitan creation myth.
They were born one after another, in this order:





who created order in the so far chaotic
"waters" and let the world come into being

God of Air - the first-born of
Atum's children

Goddess for mist and rain (water!)
Had with Shu these two children:

God of Earth

Goddess of the Starry Sky

Nut was born last, we hear. It may be the mythological explanation for the historical development, which let her replace Atum in the universe, while he himself merged with the Sun god RA into Ra-Atum or just Ra (Re, if you prefer the newer spelling).
This development possibly happened before 4th dynasty - as far as I know we lack knowledge of it.

Five elements   
This cosmology deals with five elements. The four well-known ones: Earth, Water, Air and Fire. The 5th element, connected to the starry sky/the universe, reminds pretty much about the "quint-essence" ("Aether"), which by the medieval Europaean alchemists were regarded as the origin of all the elements. They inherited this idea from the ancient Greeks, whom we normally regard as the "inventors" of the theory of the four or five elements.
Please remark: the ancient Egyptians came first. This is not commonly accepted.
Weight determins the order
So the ancient Egyptians had gods for the elements two thousand years before the Greeks speculated about them. Maybe not connected into a theory claiming that all was made up of these elements, but nevertheless combined. As in later theories the Egyptian theory placed each element in the order determined by its weight. When you realize this, it all fits. Every chamber expresses connections to one element/one god. As the most heavy element Earth, placed below Water. Above this Air, and even higher the Sun (Fire) sailing across the sky. And above everything else the Universe (Aether).

Fire - two sorts?
Later we shall deduct from the internal layout that the ancient egyptians differentiated between to sorts of fire. One was the element itself - the Sun - placed high above us. The other was the effect of it onto our lower world: the power of life in people, animals and plants, as well as the external heat, light, flames.
On this relief from the much later Amarna period under king Achnaton, the Sun reaches down to the king handing over the sign of life (the ankh sign), giving life to this lower region. Hereby Fire figuratively is put below Air. Though it would prefer to go higher again as seen with flames of a bonfire, or as seen with people or plants standing - just till the life energy leaves them. Then they collapse.

to the Subterranean chamber - Earth